If you are unable to resolve the issues with some of the above strategies, or if you or the audience member feel that a more independent review of the situation is needed, a more formal approach should be considered. It is helpful in your planning and preparation to describe the complaint handling procedure and dispute resolution so that information is clearly available from the outset. More formal procedures could include: Peer interviews were reported to strengthen qualitative data collection and increase its relevance and reliability. However, there are also reports of the negative consequences of peer interviewer involvement that could have been addressed with appropriate support and training (Staley, K. (2009) Exploring Impact: public involvement in NHS, public health and social care research). Co-production of a research project is an approach in which researchers, practitioners and the public work together and share power and responsibilities from start to finish of the project, including knowledge production. The assumption is that those for whom research is most relevant are best placed to design and implement it in partnership with professionals, and have skills, knowledge and experience of equal importance. There is overlap with the collaborative approach, but what defines co-production are the values and principles behind it, rather than specific tools or techniques. Indeed, there is no one-size-fits-all formula or method for co-production, and such an approach would run counter to the implicit innovation and flexibility of co-produced research. Rather, co-production requires that relationships be valued and nurtured, that efforts be made to bridge power differences, and that people be supported and empowered to realize their potential in fulfilling their roles and responsibilities in the project. Co-production of research may include partnerships between universities and organizations representing the public, as well as individual members of the public working with organizations, such as universities, conducting research. The NIHR guidelines for co-production of a research project describe the main principles and characteristics of co-production. These are summarized below:Basics: Consider the broad and diverse perspectives and experiences you need to incorporate into your research.

Try to make sure you have a variety of perspectives so you can get different perspectives and give those with the skills you need for the project time to network with others. For more information, see Being Inclusive in Public Participation in Health Research and the Standard on Inclusive Opportunities for Public Engagement. Collaboration involves an ongoing partnership between you and the members of the public you work with, in which decisions about research are shared. For example, the public could collaborate with researchers in the development of the research funding application, be a member of the student advisory group, and collaborate with researchers to disseminate the results of a research project. This is a broad approach that can be used in a variety of different research activities and at many different stages of the research project. Collaboration requires commitment, openness and flexibility, and it is important to plan and prepare properly (see note five on planning and preparedness). Benefits of collaboration: Public involvement in the direction of research ensures that research meets people`s needs and that research questions and results are clear. It strengthens the ethical basis of research and can help improve the recruitment and retention of voluntary study participants.

Public involvement in the design phase of research can: NHS Lincolnshire GCC is committed to taking a best practice approach to this formal public consultation process. We want to hear from the people of Lincolnshire on the possible future configuration of four NHS services. Any feedback we receive is incorporated into all decisions made by NHS Lincolnshire GCC about these services. You can share your views on this consultation here. Public involvement in the analysis and interpretation of research findings can: This ongoing dialogue with patients and the public is what the NHS calls `engagement`. If, as a result of this commitment, appropriate adjustments or improvements to services are necessary, the NHS will do so. It can be difficult to secure funding to support public participation before your grant application is accepted. Talk to your organization or university to see if they have funds for public participation. If you are working with your local NIHR research design department to develop your application, ask them for funding for public participation in the grant application.

Many, but not all, local research design departments have processes in place that allow you to apply for a small grant at this stage. It`s not too late to get people involved if you`ve already developed your research funding application. You can still engage members of the public by: Public participation in your research can influence, support and strengthen how your research is put into practice. Public involvement in research often offers a means of making changes and improving aspects of health practice and care that are of particular interest to people. Members of the public involved in research are often passionate about ensuring that action is taken as a result of the research and may be able to build influential relationships with authorities and key decision makers. Public participation in research management, regulation, leadership and decision-making. Public participation in research governance can help make research more transparent and build public trust. The following questions can help you think about the standard and decide if you`re meeting it: It is important to contact the relevant departments in your organization, such as finance and human resources (HR), in a timely manner. Explain how you plan to engage the public in your research. This will ensure that you are aware of local arrangements to engage members of the public and any issues raised by finance or HR about the proposed agreements. If there are concerns from these departments, you will have time to respond quickly.

Here are some examples of issues you may need to consider: The NHS Lincolnshire is in constant dialogue with the people of the county, listening to their views and receiving feedback on NHS services. This dialogue takes place in a variety of ways, such as public and patient group meetings, board meetings, workshops and information sessions. Members of the public may participate in the conduct of research in a variety of roles, such as: NIHR is committed to actively and openly supporting and promoting equality, diversity and inclusion, and this also applies to how we interact with the public. Therefore, this standard is essential for NIHR and the research we fund. Some consultations are quite specialized, others deal with broader issues, such as how we conduct our work. On our website, you will find details of all our consultations and how you can get feedback on them. Encourage and support public participation in dissemination: Formal public consultation is different from public participation. This is a mandatory process that NHS facilities (in this case, NHS Lincolnshire CCG) must follow if they wish to make significant and permanent changes to the configuration of the service. This is a regulated process described in detail in the National Guidelines (www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/planning-assuring-delivering-service-change-v6-1.pdf). Public participation generally describes an ongoing process in which initial plans are shared by the government or similar organizations with the public and other relevant groups to allow for their input as early as possible.

In particular, NHS England`s Public Engagement Guidelines state that you can also search the website for consultations by keyword, postcode, interest, etc. Use plain language for timely and relevant communication in engagement plans and activities. Communicate with a wider audience about public engagement and research, and use a wide range of accessible and engaging approaches. The following questions can help you think about the standard and decide if you are meeting it: In contrast, there is a legal obligation for NHS bodies to formally consult patients, the public, other stakeholders and relevant committees when considering a significant change in the way a service is provided (such as the closure of a hospital or service such as A&E). Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs), local authorities, NHS trusts, NHS foundation trusts and NHS England all have separate but similar obligations to consult or involve the public. The public is involved in a wide range of research activities. This includes participating in the development of the research question, applying for ethical funding and licensing, participating in advisory groups, conducting research, and disseminating research results. This section explores the different ways in which the public can participate in the phases of the research cycle. As you read this section, keep in mind the six UK standards for public participation: inclusive opportunities; Cooperation; support and learning; Governance; Communications; Impact. Provide opportunities for public participation that are accessible and reach individuals and groups based on research needs.

Research must draw on a diversity of experience and public knowledge to lead to treatments and services that meet these needs. The following questions can help you think about the standard and decide if you are meeting it: Several funding agencies and research ethics boards ask applicants about their public involvement plans in the hope that if they do not involve members of the public in the research, they will have clear reasons and must be able to: to explain them.