The Supreme Court of Canada is composed of nine judges, including the Chief Justice of Canada. Their names are as follows: All federally appointed judges are appointed by the Governor to the Council. The Governor General acts on the advice of the Prime Minister on behalf of the judges of the Supreme Court of Canada and the deputy chief and chief justices of the provinces; and, on the advice of the Minister of Justice, for all other judges of the Supreme Court. However, there is a more limited meaning of the word. In most provinces, the term “provincial court” is used to refer to a specific court created by the province, which is the primary criminal court and has jurisdiction over all but the most serious crimes. The provincial court in a particular province may also have limited civil jurisdiction over small claims and certain family law matters. The exact extent of the jurisdiction of a provincial court depends on the laws enacted by that province. In this sense, provincial courts are courts with limited jurisdiction, sometimes referred to as “subordinate courts.” As courts with limited jurisdiction, their decisions can be subject to judicial review by superior courts on privileges, but in most cases there are now well-established statutory appeals. Given that the independence of the judiciary from Canadian law is considered essential to a well-functioning democracy, the regulation of Canadian judges requires the participation of the judges themselves. The Canadian Judicial Council, composed of the Chief Justices and Associate Chief Justices of the federal courts and the provinces and territories, receives complaints from the public about questionable judicial conduct.

“There is no need for a legislative hearing or other process before the person is appointed, although various governments have decided in the past on their own to hold some sort of public hearing. Recent appointments by the current administration have involved questions from lawmakers, though this is much milder than what Justice Kavanaugh has just suffered there in the United States. The Canadian Judicial Council`s Ethical Principles for Judges set out the standard of conduct for judges of the Superior Court of Justice. The Federal Court of Appeal hears appeals from decisions of the Federal Court, the Tax Court of Canada and a particular group of federal administrative tribunals such as the National Energy Board and the Canada Industrial Relations Board. All judges of the Federal Supreme Court are ex officio judges of the Federal Court of Appeal and vice versa, although it is rare for a judge of one court to sit as a member of the other. The Federal Court of Appeal is a circuit court. The Court`s judges sit in three-member panels and hear cases in English and French in 18 cities, from Vancouver to St. John`s, including northern Canada. In some cases, the court may suspend the effects of its judgments so that unconstitutional laws remain in force for a period of time. Typically, this is done to give Parliament or a legislator sufficient time to enact a new alternative legislative system. For example, in Reference re Manitoba Language Rights, the court struck down Manitoba laws because they had not been enacted in French, as required by the Constitution. However, the court suspended his sentence for five years to give Manitoba time to enact all its laws in French.

It turned out that five years was not enough, so the court was invited and agreed to give more time. The Canadian Judicial Council also investigates complaints about the conduct of federal judges across Canada. The Council has the power to recommend to Parliament, through the Minister of Justice, the removal of a judge. The Canadian Constitution gives the federal government the exclusive right to enact criminal law, while the provinces have exclusive control of much of the civil law. The provinces are responsible for the administration of justice within their jurisdictions. Almost all cases, whether criminal or civil, are heard by provincial or territorial courts.