In the light of the above considerations, it should be noted that, when considering the cost of detention, account should be taken not only of the actual cost of subsistence of each prisoner, which is normally considerably higher than that incurred by a person sentenced to non-custodial sentences, but also indirect costs. such as social, economic and health costs, which are difficult to measure but immense and long-term. At the heart of the case for promoting prison reform is a human rights argument – the premise on which many United Nations standards and norms have been developed. However, this argument is often insufficient to promote prison reform programmes in countries with limited human and financial resources. The negative effects of incarceration, not only on individuals but also on families and communities, as well as economic factors, must also be taken into account when considering the need for reform of the penitentiary system. Any discrimination, such as access to health care and the means and rights to achieve it, shall be based on race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, physical or mental disability, health status (including HIV/AIDS), sexual and civil orientation, political, social or other situation. that are intended or have the effect of impairing the equal enjoyment or exercise of the right to health. Inhalants are various products that can be easily purchased and found at home or at work, such as spray paints, markers, adhesives, and cleaning liquids. They contain dangerous substances that, when inhaled, have psychoactive (psychotropic) properties. People don`t usually think of these products as drugs because they`re not meant to get high, but some people use them for that purpose. When these substances are used to get high, they are called inhalants. Inhalants are mainly used by young children and adolescents and are the only class of substances used more by younger adolescents than by older adolescents.

Addiction is defined as a chronic relapsing-remitting disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use despite adverse consequences.† It is considered a brain disorder because it involves functional changes in brain circuits involved in reward, stress, and self-control. These changes can last long after a person has stopped using drugs. [11] The right to health (Article 12) was defined in General Comment 14 of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights – a committee of independent experts charged with monitoring compliance with the Covenant. (4) The Act includes the following basic elements: Certain medications, substances or medications may be harmful during pregnancy, depending on the amount and frequency of ingestion. Mental illness often results in a denial of dignity and autonomy, including coercive treatment or institutionalization, and disregard for individual legal capacity to make decisions. Paradoxically, mental health in public health is still under-addressed, despite high levels of violence, poverty and social exclusion that contribute to poorer mental and physical health outcomes for people with mental health disorders. Methadone, buprenorphine and suboxone are prescription drugs, sometimes called drug therapies. These help treat heroin and opiate addiction.

The Convention represents an important step forward in the fight against transnational organised crime and means that Member States recognise the seriousness of the problems involved and the need to promote and strengthen close international cooperation to address these problems. States ratifying the instrument undertake to take a number of measures against transnational organized crime, including the creation of national offences (participation in an organized criminal organization, money-laundering, corruption and obstruction of justice); the adoption of a new comprehensive framework for extradition, mutual legal assistance and law enforcement cooperation; and the promotion of training and technical assistance to build or strengthen the necessary capacities of national authorities. One of the main objectives of the United Nations in the area of prison reform is to contribute to the successful reintegration of prisoners into society upon their release.